Sexual Activity Proposal TO-F2
ADULT/CHILD SEXUAL ACTIVITY POLICY PROPOSAL
BY Child Sexual Assault Ad Hoc Comittee
Aaron, Christy, Donna, Ira, Ross and Trisha
Child sexual abuse has received significantly more attention in recent years, and we are still just learning of its impact on children's (and later as adults) lives. We know that one out of four girls and one out of seven boys will experience some form of sexual abuse by age 18. Sexual abuse is the leading cause of running away from home. Over 40% of prostitutes experienced child sexual abuse, as well as a similar percentage of female drug addicts. Seventy-five percent of incarcerated sex offenders report some form of sexual abuse as children. Incest is the most commonly reported form of sexual abuse.
When it comes to kids, Twin Oaks cannot affort its "wait until something gets really bad" approach to innapropriate behavior. We need to act BEFORE something happens. What we have developed here is a set of guidelines that will help us to protect our kids whild avoiding an approach to the problem that clashes wih the general sense of trust we live with.
It is important for kids to receive as much physical affection (hugs, holding hands, back rubs, etc.) as possible. It's important that adults don't feel uncomfortable touching kids in appropriate, nurturing ways. At the same time we would like to instill a sense of personal autonomy, a feeling of respect for the child i.e. not just picking a child up, but asking first, respecting a "no" from a child concerning a kiss or hug). The following attempts to outline behaviors and expectations to meet that goal. The main purpose of the policy is to protect our children from sexually exploitive/ abusive situations by giving the community concrete guidelines to work with.
-We recognize adult/child sexual activity as emotionally damaging for children
-Sexually stimulating activity or any act that can be perceived as harmful (physically or emotionally) that is encouraged or pursued between adults and children by either party will be grounds for termination of the adults membership at Twin Oaks. Known sexual abusers should not be in the community (with one exception -- see section on incest later in paper).
-If a child attempts to initiate sexual activity, it is the adults responsibility to refuse to participate and to discuss the incident with the child's parent/guardian.
-Members who have sexual feelings/thoughts about children are encouraged to talk to the health team, and appropriate counseling arrangements will be made. Many adults have sexual THOUGHTS about children at one timw or another. What we are referring to here is a member with persistant thoughts or physical arousal around children, and/ or members who think they might sexually touch a child. We want to provide support for a person in this category, not rejection.
-A FEW examples of innapropriate behaviors
.fondling in a sexual manner
.initiating sexually explicit discussion or acts by any adult without the prior consent of the child's parent or guardian (on this last one, we're not talking about answering questions, but telling a child your sexual history, etc.)
-Examples of appropriate behavior
.kids discovering things of a sexual nature on their own
.kids seeking information (meaning not promoted by adults, but attempts to verbally satisfy their curiosity)
.bathing children/bathing with children
.checking genitals for health reasons
Obviously, there is some ambiguity in what is OK and what is not OK. There are a lot of grey areas. We all need more education about the issue so that we as a community can feel more comfortable. Someone could touch a child in a way that they feel is appropriate, but that another adult thinks is inappropriate. We need to be gentle with each other and at the same time, open to feedback. Following is a general outline for what we can do about concerns we have about how an adult is interacting with kids.
If you suspect child sexual abuse, we want you to ACT on that suspicion. Again, when it comes to kids, we can't wait until something happens. We want to prevent it from happening. It is all of our responsibility, not just child-oriented folks, but every member of the community. Acting on suspicions means checking them out, talking to someone who can follow through with your concerns. Clarifying behaviors. It doesn't mean the "suspicious person" is wrong or bad. It doesn't mean kick them out.
ALL concerns/suspicions of this nature should be reported to the child board. By using one central group, we can make sure that the situation gets handled in a consistant manner, and that any repeated concerns would be heard by the same people. Even if you feel uncomfortable about an interaction between a parent/guardian and a child, talk to a CB member. Incest is the most commonly reported form of sexual abuse.
PROCESS FOR CONCERNS
1. If you have concerns, talk to a Child Board member. (You can request anonymity, and info will be kept confidential as possible). You could go to the planners if you are not comfortable going to the CB. Planners will then go to CB.
2. You can be assured that the CB will follow through on your concerns. You do not need to discuss this concern with other community members and shouldn't so as not to start the rumor mill. CB member will write down your concern with you.
3. CB member will discuss with you your concerns, helping when necessary to clarify them. ("Gee, I'm not sure why I have this feeling about co, but every time I see co with Fulao, I get an negetive feeling. . .") It's called intuition. Check it out. The written information will be recorded in a confidential manner, assuring anonymity for both parties.
4. If the concern is about a member who interacts with a specific child or two (versus being actively involved with lots of different kids), then CB will ask those children's primaries/parents what they are feeling about the person's child interactions. CB will use discretion in determining whether or not to ask the whild specifically if co has been touched.
5. As many members of the CB as deemed necessary will meet with the ember with concerning behavior. Reported concerns will be discussed to clarify the situation.
6. Depending on the information gathered, various courses of action will be followed:
-no further action seems necessary
-co's child-oriented contact may be limited (i.e. can't be a meta, no alone time with children, etc.)
-no child contact
-may be put on probation for 3 month period to see if co follows limits set
-private paper to members only (about limits set on co, action taken)
-CB can go to membership team to talk about termination of co's membership if sexual abuse has taken place
-inform police or other appropriate authorities
-both parties are informed of the action taken
7. We are required by law to report all known cases of incest to the Dept. of Social Services. Anything less than confirmed abuse will fall under the above guidelines. Because of our investment in what is best for the child, we want to offer support to incest families, rather than initiating termination proceedings. Incest is defined as any sexual activity between a parent/guardian and a child - see discription of "sexual activity" earlier in paper.
CONFIDENTIALITY IS THE KEY TO THIS PROCESS WORKING
It is not fair to members with concerning behavior if the rumor mill says they are child abusers! Think about it. If we want to protect our kids and feel comfortable checking out concerns, we ALL need to NOT feed the rumor mill. People will not check out their concerns if they feel it will hurt another member.
CHANGES IN MEMBERSHIP PROCESS
Attached are questions that were developed by the membership team and the child sexual abuse ad hoc committee. During membership interviews these questions will be asked. The membership team is currently revising some of its policies, and they will be posted separately by them when the proposed changes are finished. The questions are included here only because they pertain to the topic of this paper.
(QUESTIONS ARE NOT ATTACHED)
VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN
Adams, Caren and Fay, Jennifer. No Is Not Enough: Helping Teenagers Avoid Sexual Assault. CA:Impact Publishers, 1984.
-----Nobody Told Me It Was Rape: A Parent's Guide to Talking to Adolescents about Sexual Assault. CA: Network Publications, 1984.
Ageton, Suzanne. Sexual Assault Among Adolecents. MA: Lexington Books, 1983.
Amir, Menachem. Patterns in Forcible Rape. ILL: University of Chicago Press, 1971.
Benedict, Helen. Recovery: How to Survive Sexual Assault for Women, Men, Teenagers, their Friends and Families. New York : Doubleday Book Co., 1985.
Beneke, Timothy. Men on Rape: What They Have to Say About Sexual Assault. New York: St. Martin's Press, Inc., 1983.
Bode, Janet. Fighting Back: How to Cope with the Emotional and Legal Consequences of Rape. New York : Mackmillan Publishing Co., 1978.
Brownmiller, Susan. Against Our Will: Men, Women and Rape. New York : Bantam Books, 1975.
Burgess, Ann W. and Holstrom, Lynda L. Rape: Victims of Crisis. MD: Robert J. Brady Co., 1974.
-----Rape-Crisis and Recovery. MD: Robert J. Brady Co., 1979.
-----and Baldwin, Bruce. Crisis Intervention Theory and Practice: A Clinical Handbook. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1981.
Fielding, Joy. Kiss Mommy Goodbye. New York: Doubleday Book Co., 1981.
Fortune, Marie. Sexual Abuse Prevention: A Study for Teenagers. New York: Pilgrim Press, 1984.
Griffin, Susan. Rape, The Power of Consciousness. New York: Harper and Row, 1979.
Grossman, Rachel and Sutherland, Joan. Surviving Sexual Assault. New York: Congdon and Weed, Inc., 1983.
Groth, Nicholas. Men Who Rape. New York: Plenum Press, 1979.
Halpern, Susan and Hicks, Dorothy J. Rape: Helping the Victim. New Jersey: T. Crenshaw Medical Economics Co., 1978.
Hilberman, Elaine. The Rape Victim. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1976.
Hirsch, Miriam. Women and Violence. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1980.
Hursch, Carolyn J. The Trouble with Rape: A Phychologist's Report on the Legal, Medical, Social and Psychological Problems. ILL: Nelson-Hal, Inc., 1977.
Katz, Judy H. No Fairy Godmothers, No Magic Wands, The Healing Process After Rape. CA: R & E publishsers, 1984.
MacNamara, Donald E.J. and Sagarin, Edward. Sex, Crime and the Law. New York: Free Press, 1977.
McCahill, Thomas, Meyer, Linda and Fischman, Arthur. The Aftermath of Rape. MA: Lexington Books, 1979.
McCombie, Sharon L. The Rape Crisis Intervention Handbook. New York: Plenum Press, 1980.
McEvoy, Alan W. and Brookings, Jeff D. If She Is Raped: A Book for Husbands, Fathers and Male Friends. Michigan: Learning Publications, Inc., 1984.
Medea, Andrea and Thompson, Kathleen. Against Rape. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1974.
Russell, Diana E. Politics of Rape: The Victim's Perspective. New Yrok: Stein & Day, 1984.
-----Sexual Exploitation. CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 1984.
Stanko, Elizabeth A. Intimate Instrusions: Women's Experiences of Male Violence. MA: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985.
Warner, Carmen G. (ed.) Rape and Sexual Assault Management and Intervention. MD: Aspen Systems Corporation, 1980.
Yglesias, Helen. Sweetsir. New York: Random House Books, 1981.
Articles of interest
Burgess, Ann W. "Rape:Sexual Disruption and Recovery". American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 49 (October, 1979), pp. 648-657.
-----. "Rape Trauma Syndrome", American Journal of Psychiatry, 131 (September, 1974), pp. 981-86.
Ellis, Elizabeth M., Atkinson, Beverly M. and Calhoun, Karen S. "An Assessment of Long-Term Reaction to Rape", Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 93 (June 1981), pp. 263-66.
Feldman-Summers, Shirley; Goldman, Patricia E. and Meugher, Jeannette R. "The Impact of Rape in Sexual Satisfaction", Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88 (February, 1979), pp. 101-5.
Ipema, Donna K. "Rape: The Process of Recovery", Nursing Research, 28 (September-October, 1979), pp. 272-5.
Janoff-Bulamn, Ronnie. "Charaterological versus Behavioral Self-Blame: Inquiries Into Depression and Rape", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 137 (October, 1979), pp. 1708-1809.
Masters, William H. and Johnson, Virginia E. "The Aftermath of Rape", Redbook, June 1976, pp. 74-161.
Sutherland, Sandra and Scherl, Donald J. "Patterns of Response Among Victims of Rape", American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 40 (April, 1979), pp. 503-11.
Whiston, Sheila K. "Counseling Sexual Assault Victims: A Loss Model", Personnel and Guidance Journal, 59 (February, 1981), pp. 363-66.
Child Sexual Assault/Incest
Adams, Caren and Fay, Jennifer. No More Secrets: Protecting Your Child From Sexual Assault. San Luis Obispo: Impact Publishers, 1979.
Allen, Charlotte Vale. Daddy's Girl. New York:Simon and Schuster, 1980.
Angelou, Maya. I Know Why the Caged Sings. New York: Random House Books, 1970.
Armstrong, Louise. Kiss Daddy Goodnight. New Yok: Pocket Books, 1978.
Bass, Ellen and Thornton, Louise (eds). I Never Told Anyone- Writings by Women Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse. New York: Harper and Row, 1983.
Brady, Katherine. Father's Day: A True Story of Incest. New York: Seaview Books, 1979.
Burgess, Ann W.; Groth, Nicholas; Holstrom, Lynn and Sgroi, Suzanne. Sexual Assault of Children and Adolescents. MA: Lexington Books, 1978.
Butler, Sandra. Conspiracy of silence: Trauma of Incest. CA: New Glide Publications, 1978.
Daugherty, Lynn B. Why Me? Help for Victims of Child Sexual Abuse. New York: Mother Courage Press, 1985.
Finkelhor, David. Sexually Victimized Children. New York: Free Press, 1980.
Forward, Susan. Betrayal of Inocence: Incest and Its Devastation. New York: Penguin Books, 1978.
Geiser, Robert L. Hidden Victims- The Sexual Abuse of Children. MA: Beacon Press, 1979.
Gilbert, Lucy and Webster, Paula. Bound by Love: The Sweet Trap of Daughterhood. MA: B eacon Press, 1983.
Herman, Judith. Father - Daughter Incest. MA: Harvard University Press, 1981.
McNaron, Toni H.H. and Yarrow, Morgan (eds). Voices in the Night: Women Speaking About Incest. MN: Cleis Press, 1982.
Meiselman, Karin C. Incest: A Psychological Study of Causes and Effects with Treatment Recommendations. CA: Jossey-Boss Publishers, 1979.
Morrison, Toni. The Bluest Eye. New York: Pocket Books, 1970.
Rush, Florence. The Best Kept Secret. new Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1980.
Sanford, Linda T. The Silent Children. New York: Doubleday Book Co., 1980.
Sgroi, Suzanne M. Handbook of Clinical Intervention in Child Sexual Abuse. MA: Lexington Books, 1982.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Sexual Abuse of Children: Selected Readings. L.S.D.S., Dept. 75, Washington, D.C.
Domestic Violence/ Marital Rape
Bayer, Edward J. Rape Within Marriage: A Moral Analysis Delayed. MD: University Press of Ameriva, 1985.
Filkelhor, David; Gelles, Richard and Hotaling, Gerald (eds). The Dark Side of Families: Current Family Violence Research. CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 1983.
For Shelter and Beyond. A Manual Published by the Massachusetts Coalition of Battered Women Service Groups, 1981.
Gelles, Richard. Family Violence. CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 1979.
Martin, Del. Battered Wives. New York: Pocket Books, 1977.
McNulty, Faith. The Burning Bed. New York: Bantam Books, Inc., 1980.
Morris, Michelle. If I Should Die Before I Wake. New York: J.P. Tarcher, 1982.
NiCarthy, Ginny. Getting Free. Seattle, WA: The Seal Press, 1982.
Prizzey, Erin. Scream Quietly or the Neighbor Will Hear. London: Penguin Books, 1974.
Roy, Maria (ed). Battered Women: A Psychosocial Study of Domestic Violence. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1977.
Russell, Diana E. Rape in Marriage. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1982.
Schechter, Susan. Women and Male Violence: The Visions and Struggles of the Battered
Women's Movement. South End Press, 1982.
Strauss, Murray, Gelles, Richard and Steinmetz, Suzanne K. Behind Closed Doors: Violence in the American Family. New York: Doubleday Book Co., 1981.
Walker, Lenore. The Battered Woman. New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1979.
-----. The Battered Woman Syndrome. New York: Springer Publishing Co., 1984.
White, Evelyn. Chain Chain Change: For Black Women Dealing with Physical and Emotional Abuse. Seattle, WA: The Seal Press, 1985.
Zambrano, Myrna M. Mejor Sola Que Mal Acompanada: Para La Mujer Golpeada - For the Latina in An Abusive Relationship. Seattle, WA: The Seal Press, 1985.
Pornography/ Violence Against Women in the Media
Barry, Kathleen. Female Sexual Slavery. New York: Avon Books, 1979.
Dworkin, Andrea. Pornography: Men Possessing Women. New York: G.P. Putnam Sons, 1981.
Eysenck, H.J. and Nias, D.K.B. Sex, Violence and the Media. New York: Harper and Row, 1979.
Griffin, Susan. Pornography and Silence. New York: Harper and Row, 1981.
Lederer, Laura (ed). Take Back The Night. New York: Bantam Books, 1980.
Lovelace, Linda. Ordeal: An Autobiography. New Jersey: Stuart, Lyle, Inc., 1980.
Snodgrass, Jon (ed). For Men Against Sexism. New York: Times Change Press, 1977.
Articles to Read:
Berger, Alan. "Pornography: Is Censorship the Answer?", Boston Real Paper, Sept. 14, 1979.
Brownmiller, Susan. "Let's Put Pornography Back in the Closet", Newsday, July 17, 1979.
Coburn, J. "Use of Brutality Towards Women in Record Advertising", Mademoiselle, August 1977.
Dworkin, Andrea. "The Prophet of Perversion", Mother Jones, April 1980, p.20.
Dudar, Helen, "America Discovers Child Pornography", MS, August 1977, p.45.
Durbin, K. "Violence in Moving Pictures", Mademoiselle, July 1976, p.119.
English, Deidre. "The Politics of Porn", Mother Jones, April 1980, p.20.
Fremont-Smith, Eliot. "Pornography's Progress", Village Voice, October 15, 1980, p. 42.
-----. "Sex Magazines and Feminism: Symposium", Humanist, Nov. 1978, p. 44.
Hyans, H. "Media Mistreatment of Women", McCalls, January 1978, p. 43.
Lubow, A. "Susan Brownmiller Comes to Times Square Not to Peep But to Bleep It in Her Anti- Porn Crusade", People, August 27, 1979, p. 43.
Morgan, Robin. "How to Run Pornography Out Of Town and Preserve the First Amendment", MS, November 1978.
Schipper, Henry. "Filthy Lecure", Mother Jones, April 1980, p. 31.
Siskel, Gene. "Brutality Exploits Women", Boston Sunday Globe, Sept. 28, 1980, p. 86.
Steinman, Gloria. "Erotica vs. Pornography: A Clear and Present Difference", MS, August 1977, p. 43.
-----"Pornography - Not Sex But The Obscene Use of Power", MS, August 1977, p. 43.
Sullivan, Walter. "Violent Pornography Elevates Aggression, Researchers Say", New York Times, Sept. 30, 1980, p.c1.
"Women's War on Porn", Time, August 27, 1979, p. 64.
CRISIS INTERVENTION GUIDELINES
1. To assess child's safety needs.
2. To find out what the child wants from you.
3. To validate the child's feelings.
4. To assure the child that: you care, you are still a friend, the child is not to blame.
5. To let the child know she/he has a RIGHT to be safe.
6. To let the child know what action you will take.
When you are faced with a child who has been assaulted, it is often difficult to know how to respond. Below are some guidelines to help you and the child through this crisis period.
1. Always be calm. Your reaction makes a difference.
2. Believe what you are hearing. Too often, children lack credibility. Listen to the child in a non- judgemental way.
3. Deal with explicit language. A child may use explicit terms to discuss her/ his experience. Be prepared. Try and use this language, too.
4. Do not avoid embarrassing subjects. Let the child know that everything can be talked about.
5. Do not project or assume anything. Let the child tell the story: leave your own assumptions out.
IDENTIFYING ABUSED CHILDREN
Abuse cannot be identified by racial, ethnic, or socio-economic class. All children are potential victims because of their vulnerable, powerless position in our culture. Children who are abused often do share common characteristics. Below are some of these characteristics. Any characteristic alone can be a natural, normal response for a child It is important to keep i mind that we are discussing "extreme" behavior which is CONSISTENT, of a long DURATION, and PERVASIVE.
Abused children are often:
fearful of interpersonal relationships or overly compliant
withdrawn or aggressive, hyperactive
consistently irritable or listless, detached
affectionless or overly affectionate
(misconstrued as seduction)
Physical Symptoms :
bruises, burns, continuing injuries
urinary infections (particularly in young children)
chronic ailments, stomach aches, vomiting, etc.
Activity & Habit Clues Age-Inappropriate Behavior :
nightmares consistent thumb sucking
constant hand manipulation of genitals sexually active
a child afraid to go home prostitution
running away bed wetting
stealing, lying delinquency
Educational Concerns: Emotional Disturbances:
learning disabilities hysteria
extreme curiosity, imagination phobias, fear of darkness, public restrooms, etc.
Davanloo, Habib (ed). Short -Term Dynamic Psychotherapy. New York: Jason Aronson, 1980.
Edwards, Romaine V. Crisis Intervention and How It Works. MA: Charles C. Thomas, 1977.
Hinton, Anne P., Sherby, Linda and Tenbusch, Lynn. Getting Free: Women and Psychotherapy. New York: Grove Press, 1982.
Hoff, Lee Ann. People in Crisis, Understanding and Helping. CA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1978.
Mander, Anica V. and Rush, Anne K. Feminism as Therapy. New York: Random House Books, 1974.
Nass, Stanley. Crisis Intervention. Iowa: Kendall Hunt Publishing Co., 1977.
Sanford, Linda T. and Donovan, Mary Ellen. Women and Self-Esteem. New York: Doubleday Book Co., 1984.
Using Crisis Intervention Wisely: Nursing Skillbook Series. PA: Springhouse Corporation, 1975.
Amir, Menachim. Patterns in Forcible Rape. Chicago: University Press, 1971.
Boston Women's Health Book Collective. Our Bodies, Our Selves. New york: Simon & Schuster, 1976.
Brownmiller, Susan. Against Our Will. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1975.
Burgess, Ann Wolbert and Holstrom, Lynda Lytle. Rape: Victims Of Crisis. Bowie, Maryland: Robert J. Brady Publishing Co., 1974.
McDonald, John M. Rape: Offenders and Their Victims. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Press, 1971.
Medea, Andrea and Thompson, Kathleen. Against Rape. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1974.
MEDICAL ARTICLES :
Burgess, Ann Wolbert and Holstrom, Lynda Lytle. "Rape Victim in the Emergency Ward." American Journal of Nursing. Oct. 1973, pp.1741-?.
Evrad, John R. "Rape: The Medical, Social and Legal Implications." American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 3, 1971, pp.197-9.
Hayman, Charles R. "A Public Health Program for Sexually Assaulted Females." Human Sexuality and Social Work. New York: Association Press, 1972.
Hayman, Charles R. "Victimology of Sexual Assault." Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality. October, 1971, pp. 152-161.
"Medical Examination of Rape Cases." Journal of Forensic Sciences. 1 #1, 1972, pp. 50-6.
LEGAL ARTICLES :
Amir, "Victim Precipitated Forcible Rape." 58 Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science. 493 (1967).
Bohmer. "Judicial Attitudes Toward Rape Victims." 57 Juducature 303 (1974).
Burgess and Holstrom. "Rape: The Victim Goes On Trial." Paper read at the session on Sexism and Sexuality, American Sociological Assoc. Annual Meeting. August 27-30, 1973 (N.Y.) Mimeo.
Comment. "Corroborating Charges of Rape." 67 Columbia Law Review. 1137 (1967).
Derr, Allen R. "Criminal Justice: A Crime Against Women?" Trial 9, no. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1973), pp. 24-6.
Kanowitz. Women and the Law: The Unfinished Revolution. Albuquerque, New Mexico: University of New Mexico Press, 1969.
"Police Discretion in Rape Cases." 117 University of Pennsylvania Law Review. 272 (Dec., 1968).
"Victim in a Forcible Rape Case: A Feminist View." 11 American Criminal Law Review. 335, 1973.
PSYCHOLOGY ARTICLES :
Amir, Menachem. "The Role of the Victim in Sex Offenses." In H.L. Resnic and M.E. Wolfgang (eds.), Sexual Behaviors: Social, Clinic and Legal Aspects. Boston: Little, Brown, 1972.
Cohen, Murray L., et. al. "The Psychology of Rapists." Seminars in Psychiatry. 1971, 3, pp. 307-327.
Sutherland, Sandra, Scherl, Donald J. "Patterns of Response Among Victims of Rape." American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 1970. 40, pp. 501-511.
OTHER SOCIAL SCIENCE ARTICLES:
Chappell, et. al. "Forcible -----: A comparative Study of Offenses Known to the Police in Boston and Los Angeles." in Benslin, J. (ed.) Studies in the Sociology of Sex. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1971.
Gagnon, John. "Female Child Victims of Sex Offenses." Social Problems 13, (Fall 1965), pp. 172-192.
Sutherland, Sandra and Scherl, Donald J., M.D. "Crisis intervention with Victims of Rape." Social Work. 17 No. 1 (Jan. 1972) pp. 34-40.
Weiss, Kurt and Borges, Sandra A. "Victimology and Rape: The Case of the legitimate Victim." Issues in Criminology. 8, No. 2, (Fall 1977), pp. 71-113.
CENTRAL ARTICLES :
Griffin, S. "Rape: The All-American Crime." Ramparts. September 1971, pp. 26-35.
Lear, M. "Your Friend the Rapist". Forum. 1, 11, August 1972, pp. 50-6.
Lear. "What Can You Say About Laws That Tell A Man : If You Rob A Woman You Might As Well Rape Her Too- The Rape is Free." Redbook. September 1971.
Lear. "Q: If You Rape A Woman and Steal Her TV, What Can They Get You For In New York? A: Stealing Her TV." New York Times Magazine. January 30, 1972, pp. 55-62.
Sullivan. "Rape and Its Neglected Victims." San Francisco Chronical. California Living Section. April 9, 1972.
This manual was originally prepared by Rebecca Abbott, Polly Scarvalone and Alice Wolff in the Spring of 1977.
Special thanks to:
Susan Bunge: map
Fern Lee: logo and 1st page